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Stress and Bloating - Can one Cause the Other?

Anyone who is familiar with IBS, food intolerances or cravings, will no doubt know how strongly our gut can influence our mood. What a lot of people might not realise, however, is that stress and emotions can trigger common digestive complaints like bloating and constipation. Essentially, when you're feeling stressed, your brain goes into a "Fight or Flight" mode and stops your body from digesting food until things get back to "normal". However, when you're stressed for a long time you never come out of that "Fight or Flight" mode, which means your digestive system can't return to normality.

Read on to find out about the science behind how stress causes bloating, and some methods you can use to deal with stress related bloating or constipation.

Stress wreaking havoc on your digestion? Try our top recommended remedies.

The Enteric Nervous System

Located throughout tissues lining the gastrointestinal tract is a complex network of circuitry collectively known as the enteric nervous system (ENS) [1]. In charge of mediating gastrointestinal function, unlike other systems the ENS is able to independently send and receive information, record experiences and respond without having to involve the brain and central nervous system (CNS) [2]. The ENS and CNS are however cooperative and in constant two-way communication. For example the CNS recognises the sight or smell of food triggering the ENS to facilitate saliva and digestive enzyme secretion, while the ENS provides the CNS with information letting us know when we are hungry, bloated or in pain. Made up of similar cells and utilising many of the same neurotransmitters, research continues to confirm both the ENS and CNS are heavily influenced by one another.

The Mind-Gut Connection

An important CNS neurotransmitter involved in psychological wellbeing and happiness, over 90% of the body’s serotonin is found within the gut, where it’s involved in peristalsis, secretion and sensation [3]. Some 50% of the body’s dopamine (involved in motivation and arousal) alongside rich sources of other important psychoactive compounds including enkephalins (natural opioids or pain relievers) and benzodiazepines (relaxants similar to Valium) are also found in the gastrointestinal tract [4]. Due to whatever reason (increased demand, nutritional deficiencies, inflammation, etc) alterations in the concentration or function of these chemicals will influence both systems.

 Many bloating sufferers underestimate the connection between emotions such as stress, and digestive health. 

Abdominal symptoms frequently occur in those with conditions associated with the CNS such as depression, anxiety disorder, migraine, epilepsy and autism. With many of the drugs used to treat these conditions also producing gastrointestinal side effect [5]. Vice versa, psychological distress is often linked with gastritis, ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. With stress also widely thought to contribute to other common gut disorders including gastritis, food intolerances and celiac disease [6]. Supported by the long held belief that the gut plays a major role in happiness, distress in either the CNS or ENS appears to adversely affect the other.  

The ‘Fight or Flight’ Response

The digestive system is particularly susceptible to stress as the CNS essentially shuts down gastrointestinal function via the ENS. In response to a perceived threat, the body is flooded with stress hormones, producing rapid changes which effectively increase physical and mental preparedness. During this state of hyperarousal, processes such as digestion that aren’t essential for physical exertion are repressed in favour of those which focus on dealing with the stressor. Blood flow to the gut; intestinal motility, intestinal permeability and digestive enzyme and protective mucus production are all affected [7] and this is why you may feel bloated during times of stress.

With a fright or when stressed many experience butterflies in the stomach, nausea, a choked up feeling, trouble swallowing, indigestion, heartburn and perhaps even diarrhoea. Only intended to be of short duration, the stress response’s brief inhibition of digestion is of little long term concern, with normal function returning once the perceived threat has passed. With chronic or ongoing stress however, the digestive system remains subdued, making it difficult to digest food effectively, predisposing not just the gut but the entire body to problems [8]. Poor nutrient absorption; heartburn; bloating, cramps and other problems associated with undigested food remaining in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT); a breakdown in the intestinal wall’s barrier function; altered bowel function and changes in the number and composition of gut microbes (also known as dysbiosis), can all occur as a direct result of stress. An imbalance of good and bad bacteria can be mediated by taking probiotic supplements.

Read more about probiotics for bloating.

Keeping the Gut Happy

So if you experience indigestion, bloating, constipation, flatulence, cramps or other gastrointestinal problems it may well be worth investigating how your emotions and stress level might be contributing factors. You just might find stress relieving techniques such as meditation, exercise, yoga, qi gong, counselling, bodywork, acupuncture, herbal medicine and so on, might just help to relieve digestive problems as well as chill you out and help you sleep. Remembering the close relationship between the ENS and CNS; taking good care of your digestive system is a sound investment in your psychological wellbeing. It’s also worth trusting those ‘gut feelings’.

References

[1] Goyal, R., & Hirano, I., 1996, “The Enteric Nervous System”, The New England Journal of Medicine, 344:1106-1115.
[2] Bunnett, N., 2005, “The stressed gut: Contributions of intestinal stress peptides to inflammation and motility”, Proceedings of the national academy of sciences in the United States of America, 102(21):7409-7410.
[3] Williams, S., 2010, “Gut Reaction: The Vibrant Ecosystem Inside the Human Gut Does More than Digest Food”, Howard Huges Medical Institute Bulletin, 14-17.
[4] Kim, D., 2000, “Serotonin: A Mediator of the Brain-Gut Connection”, The American Journal of Gastroenterology”, 95(10):
[5] Horvath, K., et al, 1998, “Improved social and language skills after secretin administration in patients with autistic spectrum disorders”, Journal of the Association of Academic Minority Physicians, 9:9-15.
[6] Hertig, V., et al, 2007, “Daily Stress and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Women with Irritable Bowel Syndrome”, Nursing Research, 56(6):399-406.
[7]. Palmer, S., 2000, “Physiology of the stress response”, Centre for Stress Management and City University, London, http://www.managingstress.com/articles/physiology.htm
[8] Oxford Journal, 2000, “The stress response and the hypothalamicâ��pituitaryâ��adrenal axis: from molecule to melancholia”, QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 93(6):323-333.

Image of stressed student and image of stressed woman (bottom of page) courtesy of Michal Marcol

Have you ever found that your stress levels or emotions contribute to your bloating?  Tell us about it if so. 

 

About Brendan

Brendan is a integrative naturopath, nutritionist and yoga teacher. He has completed training in Naturopathy, Nutrition, Herbal Medicine, Yoga, Iridology and Live Blood Analysis.

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